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Introduction

Introduction: A quick history
10,000 BC – Asians crossed the Bering Strait and moved from north to south: the birth of the Indians.
4,000 BC – evidence of agriculture in Sierra Nevada (Colombia) where the Kuna oral tradition places its origins.
500 BC – evidence of pottery, figurines, jewelry in Darien, former territory of the Kuna Indians. The Kuna population is evaluated in 500 to 600.000 souls.
1492 – The Outlaw Christopher Columbus leaves Spain and De Bastidas discovered Panama. The first governor, Balboa marries the daughter of a Kuna chief and with the help of the Kuna community, crosses the isthmus to the Pacific. But Balboa, the good governor, is suspected of treason and executed by the Spanish.
1519 – The new governor Arias (“the cruel”) moves the Spanish headquarters to the Pacific coast (now Old Panama), but also massacred many indigenous Kuna living in the city. The survivors moved to the mountains in the north.
1787 – After several attempts at domination, the Spanish leave the mountains to the Kunas.
1821 – Panama Joins Colombia to declare its independence from Spain.
1850 – The Kuna Indians are beginning to settle in the Caribbean coast and some of the 370 islands.
1903 – Panama separated from Colombia: The Kuna Indians are faithful to Colombia and a conflict begins with Panama.
1915 – President Porras seeks to destroy the Kuna resistance establishing a governor on the east end of Kuna Yala in El Porvenir. The presence of black police officers in Colon involved in rapes, robberies and repressions against traditional culture originate  a resistance movement.
1925 (February 22) – The Kunas, led by Nene Kantule proclaim the Republic of Tule: they killed  the police and the half blood children. Panama is preparing to send troops, but the Kunas ask at the same time for a mediation by the United States. The USS Cleveland, crossing this area, arrives to El Porvenir on February 27, forcing both sides to negotiate.
1930 – Autonomy is granted and the implementation of the Kuna territory.
1953 – Panama grants to the indigenous Kunas, legal and administrative status codified by a constitution.
1972 – The Kuna Indians are now elected at the General Assembly of Panama.
1999 – A Kuna Indian is elected as president of the General Assembly of Panama.

Organization and Daily Life

The Famous Molas

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